What is a dl guy

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Six focus groups were conducted with 36 African American women in Washington D. The majority of cases are by way of male-to-male sexual contact. Heterosexual transmission s for the second highest proportion of cases. Among heterosexuals living with HIV in the District, Because many women report being unaware of any high-risk sexual behaviours by their male partners, some have hypothesised that men who have sex with men and women MSMW are contributing to the HIV risk exposure for African American women.

The Down low or DL is a slang term that originated in the s in the African American community that is used to describe information or activities that should be kept secret CDC n. This discourse has the potential to overshadow more statistically probable modes of HIV transmission for women in favour of highlighting the bisexual bridge theory which emphasises sexual orientation as the primary cause for HIV in women Millett et al. We aim to build upon the recommendations of Ford et al. To our knowledge, only two scientific studies to date have been published which place women in the centre of analysis relative to their experiences and attitudes regarding outwardly heterosexual, non-disclosing African American MSMW Voetsch et al.

Voetsch et al. In comparison to women who did not report sex with a bisexual man, women who reported having sex with a bisexual man had higher individual risk profiles due to engaging in more risk behaviours including having 2 or more sex partners in the last 12 months and not using a condom at last vaginal or anal intercourse. Whyte, Whyte and Cormier conducted in-depth interviews with 11 African American women aged 47—69 who reported being infected with HIV by their long-term male partners who they believe acquired HIV as a result of engaging in extra-relational sexual encounters with men Whyte IV, Whyte, and Cormier In addition, some women reported being aware of male partner infidelity with women but were more distressed to learn of male partner infidelity with men.

Religiosity among African Americans has been found to play a ificant role in HIV and homosexuality stigma within the African American community Collins Collins further notes that the Black church has historically accepted the condemnation of homosexuals, which has served to justify the oppression of homosexuals by contributing to a culture of sexual silence surrounding matters of same sex behaviour and the spread of HIV within the African American community Collins The Black Sexual Politics perspective provides a critical framework for understanding issues of heterosexual interpersonal communication between African American women and men Collins Historically, Western perceptions of African American sexuality included the notion that women and men were hypersexual with untamed heterosexual sexual appetites.

These social constructions of African American sexuality served to justify the subordination of African Americans during slavery and beyond. Furthermore, African American men are characterised as being hypermasculine with the propensity to engage in risky sexual behaviour in order to prove their sexual prowess and masculinity Wolfe ; Collins ; Bowleg et al. Following approval from the Institutional Review Board of a private, urban research-based university, 36 participants from the Washington D.

Three groups had 6 participants each, and the What is a dl guy had 7, 8 and 3 respectively. A simple invitation letter was sent to WIHS participants regarding a voluntary study. The specific topic and goals of the study were explained in more detail when the participants expressed interest in the study to the research staff and prior to the focus groups during the informed consent process.

Focus groups were particularly well suited for this study because they are considered to be very useful for studying dominant cultural variables including dominant discourse regarding sexuality Kitzinger Given that the term DL has been provided wide exposure in various mainstream media outlets to describe the same sex behaviours of outwardly heterosexual, non-disclosing African American MSMW, it has become a part of the dominant discourse regarding What is a dl guy American male sexuality Marlon ; Battle and Barnesdespite the fact that scientific research has identified that DL identifying African American men primarily do not identify as heterosexual Bond et al.

Thus, the term DL was used in the focus groups and will be used hereafter to refer to outwardly heterosexual, non-disclosing behaviourally bisexual men.

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The main topics were always addressed in the focus groups. The interview guide was adjusted as needed depending on the collective responses of the women.

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The moderator first author added additional probes when necessary in order to facilitate emerging group discussions. The mean age of participants was 45 years range 25 — The remaining participants reported having less than a high school diploma. This analysis is based upon the framework approach which is both deductive and inductive because it allows and themes to develop both from the research questions as well as from the responses of the research participants Krueger ; Rabiee ; Smith and Firth The framework approach consists of three interrelated stages including 1data management; 2 descriptive s; and 3 interpretation to bring meaning to a situation or phenomenon.

This approach was particularly relevant for this analysis given that we wanted to demonstrate the practical application of the Black Sexual Politics perspective within the context of African American heterosexual relationships. Upon completion of the focus groups, audiotapes were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were imported into NVIVO 9 qualitative data analysis software to facilitate the coding process.

Stage 2, descriptive s involved both authors immersing themselves in the data by reviewing transcripts line by line in an effort to summarise or describe the essence of participant statements. Data immersion allowed both authors to inductively identify sub in the data.

In stage 3, interpretation, guided by the Black Sexual Politics framework we refined our thoughts through What is a dl guy discussions in an effort to arrive at a coding consensus, and to identify central sub in the data. To increase credibility of research findings, member checking was employed. Study participants as well as the entire Washington D. WIHS population were invited to attend a presentation of preliminary in order to comment on the interpretations made by the researchers. Study were also presented to members of the WIHS national community advisory board.

Verbatim responses from the participants are used to illustrate the sub that arose from the focus group discussions. To assist readers in understanding the s of the women, serostatus of participants is noted as positive or negative. are organised according to the questions, which were directly related to the main of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. The majority of participants indicated that they became aware of the DL term largely due to popular media through watching movies, reading books, or watching talk shows regarding the DL.

Negative Meagan: I knew about it. They mention it in this movie that we came to sit in… about the downlow. Three participants indicated being unfamiliar with the exact term DL but reported being aware of the behaviour of men secretly having sex with men while in a sexual relationship with a woman.

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A quote from a positive participant represents this finding. Positive Kim: I do know people that are on the down low, but I didn't know that's what it's called. In addition to becoming aware of the DL through various media outlets some participants reported learning of the DL through their social relationships. Negative Michelle: Because I had a girlfriend who got married…Little did she know, he'd had a past relationship with a guy, and he continued with that relationship….

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Positive Alisha: …It's very difficult to tell they are in a sexual relationship with another man. When asked to explain the meaning of DL, the majority of participants expressed that DL refers to heterosexual identifying men who secretly have sex with men while in a primary relationship with a woman. Positive Terri: The down low. He deals with a woman and a man. He identifies as a heterosexual man, but he participates in bisexual … or …homosexual behaviours… But he's not out of the closet to you or me.

Participants in each of the focus groups reported having suspicious attitudes toward potential male sex partners living in the Washington D. Negative Michelle: But my, my feeling about guys that are on the downlow is that anybody and everybody out there in the city of Washington, D. Other voices of agreement] They're suspect. Negative Brenda: I also dealt and don't trust my boyfriend because I heard in the past when he used to drink, that he used to be with men… I'm suspicious about him, wondering can I trust him, I mean, you know, should I be using protection, stuff like that.

Participants suggested that many men engage in sex with men while incarcerated but do not share this information with their female partners upon returning home from prison. The following exchange between What is a dl guy HIV positive participants illustrates this finding. Positive Angela: Yeah, yeah, a lot of young brothers… under 18 and jailies…. They think they not able to get to women so they do it to guys in What is a dl guy. Positive Rita: Okay, say that you have a friend and he is on the down low in jail, but when he come outside… and some them fellows still hanging around that guy.

So you saying that all of them may be a part of the, I mean, you know? Although participants indicated that they would feel hurt and angry if they discovered their male partner was secretly having sex with other men, they also expressed feeling empathetic towards DL African American men.

The empathy subcategory emerged during discussions in 3 of the 6 focus groups and was largely attributed to the societal stigma related to same sex behaviour, especially within the African American community. Several comments made by participants illustrate a general concern for the safety and well-being of DL men and emphasise the internal struggle that many men face regarding living up to mainstream ideals of black masculinity.

Positive April: Let me say this, you have some people in the community that have a problem with these people's behaviour. Not just a problem with the sin itself, but a total problem with their behaviour, their lifestyle, everything about them. So they have a fear of coming out…. Positive Tonya: Education is very important. Unfortunately, there's still a real big stigma, for lack of information, ignorance. So you're talking about men who are HIV positive, you want them to come out of the closet, tell everybody I like men and women, and I'm positive, and cut their head off … that's a lot to ask for.

We need to find a way for these people to be comfortable to talk to us and let us make our own choices and decisions. Participants in 3 of the 6 focus groups reported the belief that homosexuality is a sin based upon religious beliefs. Despite ly engaging in high-risk behaviour substance abuse herself, a negative participant was very critical of homosexuality and equated it to the biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah.

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Negative Deirdre: …I was out there and among them… I can see it now, I stood on the sidewalk and I was looking at all these men and I was like what is this Sodom and Gomorra, I was pissed. As a God-fearing person that I am I'm a Bible person, and I believe what the Bible says. And I have not condemned you, the bible has already done that… But I'm only going from the scripture, from my god-fearing, god that I follow…I love the human being; I hate the sin.

Participants were asked how they would respond if they learned that their male partner was being unfaithful with either another woman or a man. Women reported being more emotionally and socially equipped to cope with romantic betrayals if the other sexual partner is female rather than male. Participants reported that this belief is influenced by widely held sentiments regarding heterosexual gender norms regarding male and female sexuality, spiritual beliefs, as well as a lack of available men within the African American community. Positive Donna: This Mandingo, the black man has to be the strong, you know, the macho.

That's something from slavery, that's something from way, way back. That's something What is a dl guy been embedded in us as a culture…. Negative Meagan: But, it is not okay for men to be sleeping with men. And so it hurts you even more because now you're ashamed. Negative Gladys:. What society is telling you, it is not okay for a man to be sleeping with another man. Negative Brenda: When you are living a heterosexual life you have a mind set on what your man is supposed to be…. Positive Rita: With the ratio beingthat there may be another woman My point is that, when I had the chance to be one of the females in his life, I chose to be his wife… I can deal with a woman.

Another participant voiced the belief that if her male partner was engaged in DL behaviour it would not necessarily be the end to her relationship with him because she has experienced much worse treatment from relationships.

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In addition, her spiritual beliefs regarding homosexuality contribute to an underlying assumption that homosexuality may be more of an affront to her spiritually in comparison to interpersonal physical violence. Negative Mary: … I have stayed with people that have done much worse things to me… Worse to sleep with a man?

What is a dl guy

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Down-low (sexual slang)