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Background: Problematic pornography use is considered an addictive behavior, which is an important clinical issue. Despite considerable research interest in problematic pornography use worldwide, to the best of our knowledge, there are no extant studies on the subject in Japan. Therefore, despite the fact that many people in Japan use pornography, the difference between problematic and non-problematic users among Japanese people is not known. Objective: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of problematic pornography use among Japanese students, to the best of our knowledge. Specifically, we examined general psychopathological symptoms, sexual compulsivity, depression, anxiety, and low effortful control.

An online questionnaire was administered that included items on pornography usage patterns, impaired control of pornography use, sexual compulsivity, depression, anxiety, and effortful control. Some users reported ificant daily-life problems due to difficulty in controlling pornography use 5.

Participants with impaired control of pornography use had higher depression, anxiety, and sexual compulsivity, and lower effortful control than pornography users without impaired control. Conclusion: Some Japanese students reported ificant daily-life problems due to impaired control of pornography use. The characteristics of individuals with impaired control are consistent with studies.

The of this study suggest that individuals with impaired control may have poor mental health, and that there is need for further research and development of treatment systems to manage this issue in Japan. Further research exploring a more varied sample in Japan is required to effectively examine problematic pornography use. Pornography use is an increasingly common behavior worldwide. Although many users have reported positive effects of pornography use Hald and Malamuth,some have reported negative effects due to excessive use Gola and Potenza, Among researchers, it is referred to as problematic pornography use Fernandez and Griffiths,and is characterized by control difficulties, excessive use, avoidance of negative emotions, and persistent use despite negative consequences Kor et al.

Problematic pornography use is also related to other addictive behaviors, namely, hypersexuality, gambling, internet, and gaming Kor et al. Although problematic pornography use is known to have negative consequences as with other addictive behaviors, it has not been investigated in the context of Japan where the level of pornography use is high. Japanese women for cyber sex study expands upon the existing literature that focuses on problematic pornography use as a growing worldwide phenomenon by reporting the characteristics of problematic pornography use among Japanese students.

Specifically, we examined general psychopathological symptoms, sexual compulsivity, depression, anxiety, and effortful control. Given that problematic pornography use is considered a part of compulsive sexual behavior disorder under impulse-control disorders in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision World Health Organization, ; Brand et al. Although not explicitly stated in the diagnosis, other sexual behaviors considered to be compulsive sexual behavior might include masturbation, telephone sex, cybersex, strip clubs, and sexual acts with consenting adults Kafka, ; Gola et al.

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These sexual behaviors can be divided into two : individual-based, which do not require the involvement of a partner e. Problematic pornography use classified as an individual-based sexual behavior Efrati and Mikulincer, In addition, problematic pornography use was the most common behavior reported by individuals seeking treatment for hypersexuality Reid et al.

In a study, one in seven pornography users who participated in the survey indicated an interest in seeking treatment for their pornography use Kraus et al. However, most studies in the field have been conducted in Western countries e. In fact, Thus, there is a dearth of research among non-Western countries Grubbs et al. Cross-cultural studies are needed to assess internet sex addiction, including problematic pornography use, as differences in sociocultural contexts may influence sexual behaviors Griffiths, Moreover, data from the most popular pornography website worldwide 1 revealed that Japan was ranked second in terms of daily traffic, only after the United States in the year Furthermore, online pornography use has been correlated with internet addiction scores in a sample from the national population of internet users in Japan Yong et al.

Thus, some individuals may report negative effects of pornography use due to loss of control as a result of internet addiction in Japan. However, there has been no research on either the risk of pornography addiction in Japan or the characteristics of Japanese pornography users.

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Additionally, although this concept has not yet been empirically validated, sexual desire and pornography may be considered a sensitive theme in the Japanese cultural context Hirayama, In Japan, comprehensive sexuality education is not actively taught, so there are few opportunities to acquire basic knowledge regarding sexuality Hashimoto et al.

Public discussion of sexual desire and pornography is likely to cause Japanese women for cyber sex, and sexuality remains a taboo subject in Japan Inose, ; Hirayama, In general, it has been noted that within the Japanese cultural context, issues of sexuality are a sensitive theme even in the academic field Hirayama, Nonetheless, as mentioned earlier, Japanese people use a lot of pornography see text footnote 1. Therefore, even if an individual in Japan is adversely affected by problematic pornography use, they may have difficulty seeking help and their behavior may not be recognized by clinicians.

We believe it is necessary to conduct a study that focuses on the problematic use of pornography in Japan. studies have estimated the prevalence of addicted pornography use, despite difficulty determining the accurate prevalence of problematic pornography use in the general population using different assessment tools. For example, Rissel et al. Concerning general internet addiction, if not pornography, the prevalence of severe addiction among Japanese adults was 6.

Sexual behaviors related to impaired control are more common among men as compared to women Kafka, ; Reid et al. It is not clear whether problematic pornography users in Japan, who use pornography excessively and experience negative mood states, are more common among men rather than young women. Problematic pornography use is associated with general psychopathological symptoms Brand et al.

It is also associated with poor psychosocial functioning, such as low satisfaction with life and relationships, among university students Harper and Hodgins, Motivation for pornography use is based on an attempt to escape from negative feelings correlated with anxiety, loneliness, impulsiveness, and depression Reid et al. In addition, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution I-PACE for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of behavioral addiction include inhibitory control and executive functioning as main components Brand et al.

Given the level of general inhibitory control over executive functioning, moderate external or internal triggers relating to addictive behavior, and decisions to engage is limited Brand et al. In relationships research that temperament and compulsive sexual behavior, effortful control, which is a temperamental dimension and is similar to executive function, was related to higher compulsive sexual behavior Efrati, In fact, adolescents who exhibited clinical compulsive sexual behavior did not utilize effortful control Efrati and Dannon, Furthermore, effortful control is known to comprise three difference functions Rothbart et al.

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However, the relationship between the three functions and problematic pornography use has not been examined. The current study aimed to identify the characteristics of pornography use and of individuals who experience problematic pornography use among Japanese students. First, we examined the percentage of Japanese university students who viewed pornography, the frequency of use within the past month, and the duration of use.

We also hypothesized that the rate of male pornography users with impaired control would be four times higher than that of women, based on research Rissel et al. Second, we examined differences between individuals with impaired control and without impaired control of pornography use, focusing on depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and executive attention. Additionally, given that problematic pornography users display high sexual impulsivity and low executive functioning Brand et al.

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The study was conducted using two methods of convenience sampling among college students at a university in midland Japan. In the first method, the first author visited the classroom and distributed recruitment letters, which included instructions to access the online link to the questionnaires to students. In the second method, we sent a link to the online questionnaires to 70 students via LINE, a messenger app.

Prior to responding to the questionnaires, all participants received information about ethical considerations, sensitive questions, and the right to withdraw. Participants gave their consent to participate through a link using Google forms. Prior to the participants answering questions on pornography, the operational definition of pornography was provided: Pornography 1 creates or elicits sexual thoughts, feelings, or behaviors, and 2 contains explicit images or descriptions of sexual acts involving the genitals e. The response rate was All research activities were approved by the institutional review board of blinded for review.

The final sample consisted of Japanese students at a university in midland Japan 86 men; The total EC score was derived from the three subscale scores; high scores indicated high levels of EC. Prior to analyses, participants were categorized into three groups pornography non-users, pornography users without impaired control, and pornography users with impaired control. Thereafter, differences between the three groups were examined using non-normally distributed continuous variables Japanese women for cyber sex, PHQ-9, and GAD-7 scores with pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni adjustment, and one-way analysis of variance ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables EC total score and three subscale scores with pairwise comparisons using a Tukey honestly ificant difference adjustment.

Table 1. Comparison between pornography users without and with impaired control. Table 2. Comparison between pornography non-users, pornography users without impaired control, and pornography users with impaired control. We examined pornography user characteristics and assessed differences between pornography non-users, users, and problematic users in a sample of university students in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies on problematic pornography use in Japan, thus, the present study is novel from a cultural perspective.

The findings of the present study suggest the possibility of problematic pornography use among Japanese students. Data showed that 5. This finding is consistent with prior research that reported the estimated prevalence of problematic pornography use Ross et al. In addition, pornography users with impaired control were The data indicated a high level of hypersexuality among pornography users with impaired control when compared with other groups. The most predominant behavior reported among men seeking treatment for hypersexuality is pornography consumption Reid et al.

Thus, although the diagnosis does not explicitly state that the problematic pornography use is a subtype of compulsive sexual behavior disorder Gola et al. Moreover, the high of users with impaired control suggests the possibility that a large of people have tendencies related to problematic pornography use in Japan. Additional research is needed.

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