Dating matters broward county

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Few comprehensive primary prevention approaches for youth have been evaluated for effects on multiple types of violence. In this study, we examine the prevention effects on secondary outcomes, including victimization and perpetration of physical violence, bullying, and cyberbullying. This study examined the effectiveness of Dating Matters compared to a standard-of-care TDV prevention program in 46 middle schools in four high-risk urban communities across the USA.

When compared to an existing evidence-based Dating matters broward county for TDV, Dating Matters demonstrated protective effects on physical violence, bullying, and cyberbullying for most groups of students. The Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model holds promise for reducing multiple forms of violence among middle school-aged youth.

Over the past few decades, violence has been identified as a public health problem impacting individuals, communities, and society as a whole Mercy et al. Experiencing youth violence can have severe and lasting consequences for both victims and perpetrators; victims of youth violence report decreases in self-esteem, increases in psychological trauma, and avoiding school and skipping classes Esbensen and Carson ; Hertz et al. Emerging evidence points to the overlap of multiple forms of youth violence including physical fighting, bullying, sexual violence, and teen dating violence TDV.

studies have found that poly-victimization, or exposure to multiple types of violence e. In addition, engagement in violence is a strong predictor of future violent behaviors. For example, youth who are both victims and perpetrators of bullying are at an increased risk for delinquency and violence over time Ttofi et al. More recently, several studies have demonstrated a longitudinal relationship between bullying, sexual harassment, and TDV. This theory was empirically supported by Espelage et al. In addition, Foshee et al. In a sample of middle school students, self-reported in-person, physical bullying perpetration in 6th grade was a ificant predictor of the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in 8th grade.

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A further study extended these findings to specify that bullying perpetration predicted TDV perpetration only among students who did not also report bullying victimization Foshee et al. In the past, prevention programs have often been developed and implemented to address a single problem or risk behavior—for example, communities may implement one program to prevent bullying and a different program to prevent TDV Miller et al.

However, given evidence that multiple forms of violence often overlap, it is important to consider why this overlap occurs in order to inform prevention approaches. Foshee et al. Given this and other research demonstrating shared risk and protective factors for violence, there have been increasing calls for cross-cutting prevention strategies, including programs that prevent multiple forms of youth violence and other adolescent risk behaviors CDC Although cross-cutting middle school prevention programs effective at preventing multiple risk behaviors are limited, there are a few examples to note.

Safe Dates is a dating violence prevention program that has demonstrated reductions in physical and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration, peer violence victimization and perpetration, and weapon carrying Foshee et al. Finally, Fourth R is a school-based program aimed at reducing violence, substance abuse, and unsafe sex in adolescence. A cluster-randomized trial demonstrated Fourth R reduced physical dating violence, reduced violent delinquency, and increased condom use in the intervention group over a 2. Although additional research is needed, these studies suggest that prevention approaches addressing shared risk and protective factors may be an efficient and effective prevention strategy for resource-strapped schools and communities.

Evidence Dating matters broward county growing that some prevention programs targeting multiple risk and protective factors i. That said, these programs focus mostly on the inner levels of the social ecology—individual- and relationship-level—and do not target risk and protective factors or context at the outer levels of the social ecology such as school and community climate.

The Dating Matters comprehensive TDV prevention model is focused on the primary prevention of TDV and the promotion of respectful relationship behaviors, as well as the prevention of other risk behaviors, including other forms of violence, among middle school students Tharp et al.

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Dating Matters moves beyond prior single-program interventions to include multiple preventive components at the individual, relationship, and community levels of the social ecology, including 1 classroom-delivered programs for 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students; 2 training for parents of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students; 3 training for educators; 4 a youth communications program; and 5 activities at the local health department to build prevention capacity and track TDV-related data and policies.

In its promotion of healthy, respectful relationships and its provision of multiple opportunities for developing skills such as conflict management and communication, Dating Matters addresses a constellation of risk and protective factors that can prevent multiple forms of violence. An effectiveness evaluation of Dating Matters demonstrated ificant and positive preventive effects on TDV behaviors and negative conflict styles Dating matters broward county 6th—8th graders when compared to an evidence-based standard-of-care program Safe Dates Niolon et al.

Although promoting healthy relationships and preventing TDV are the primary intervention outcomes, the content and skills-based activities target many risk and protective factors for TDV, including youth violence and delinquency e. For example, a session in the both the 6th and 7th grade youth programs teaches skills for emotional regulation and promotes emotional literacy, or the ability to identify, understand, and respond to feelings in a healthy and safe way.

Such skills are common protective factors for multiple forms of violence and can transcend the prevention of TDV behaviors and prevent other co-occurring forms of violence among youth as well. This paper describes the of a comparative effectiveness cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating effects of the Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model compared to a standard-of-care intervention on secondary outcomes among two cohorts of students who were in 6th—8th grades during the implementation phase of the trial and were therefore eligible for full exposure to Dating Matters.

We hypothesized that the Dating Matters comprehensive model would be ificantly more effective at preventing perpetration and victimization of physical fighting, bullying, and Dating matters broward county compared to Safe Dates.

A multi-site, cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted with 46 middle schools in four high-risk, urban sites across the USA. Specifically, sites were selected based on elevated levels of both violent crime e. Participating schools were randomized prior to survey data collection to receive the Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model DM in 6th—8th grades or a standard-of-care SC TDV prevention program Safe Dates Foshee et al.

Following randomization, schools worked with local health departments at each site and CDC contract staff to obtain parental permission. With parental consent in place, 6th—8th grade students in both the DM and SC middle schools were approached to participate in biannual surveys over four school years fall —spring for a total of six surveys in middle school.

Informed assent was obtained from all participants prior to completing any survey. The overall survey participation rate was Additional information about the Dating Matters study, including recruitment, implementation, data collection procedures, and the CONSORT study diagram, are available elsewhere Niolon et al.

All procedures and materials were approved by multiple Institutional Review Boards. The mean age was See Table 1 for all sample socio-demographics. Bullying victimization and perpetration were measured using selected items from the Illinois Bully Scale Espelage and Holt at baseline and subsequent follow-up surveys. Three parceled latent indicators were created from the six perpetration items for details on the process used for selecting and constructing parcels, see Niolon et al.

The correlation between the two victimization items ranged from.

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The raw means for composites ranged from 1. The raw means for composites of perpetration ranged from 1. The correlation between the perpetration items ranged from. The raw means for the physical violence perpetration item and the physical violence victimization item across time and sex by condition ranged from 1.

Before analyses were conducted, we conducted baseline equivalence testing, employed multiple imputation of missing data using PcAux Lang and Littleand created imputed datasets see eMethods in Niolon et al. Our imputation process was conducted under the assumption of missing at random for the outcome variables and demographics. Data for students in cohorts 3 or 4 with participation in at least one out of the six surveys used in this study were imputed. All descriptive statistics based on a single grand mean imputed dataset and all models were run on imputed datasets.

We conducted multiple group i. The magnitude of prevention effects is estimated as the difference between DM and SC students in constrained POMS scores at each time point and as the risk of each outcome in the DM group, relative to SC within sex and cohort. Baseline equivalence across DM and SC conditions indicated some evidence of equivalence with respect to age at baseline, there were more Hispanic and fewer Dating matters broward county White and non-Hispanic Black students in schools ased to the SC condition Table 1.

All outcomes passed baseline equivalence tests. Figure 1 provides the percent relative risk reduction by outcome for DM compared to the SC for all outcomes; however, below we provide additional by sex for each outcome. Percent relative risk reduction by outcome M, range for Dating Matters vs. Note: Relative risk reduction represents the percent reduction in scores on measures of victimization and perpetration of bullying, cyberbullying, and physical fighting for the Dating Matters condition relative to the standard-of-care condition.

The s within the circles represent the average risk reduction for that outcome across the 4 groups sex by cohortand the space between the diamonds represent the range of relative risk reduction on that outcome across the four groups.

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The constrained means for bullying perpetration are shown in Fig. The differences between DM and SC students on model-constrained bullying perpetration scores averaged 1. No effects were found for bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration across time by sex and cohort. Percent of Maximum Score POMS refers to the maximum possible score given the of items and response in a scale, rather than the maximum observed score.

Mean POMS scores have been constrained to be equal when not ificantly different; non-overlapping lines at any time point represent a statistically ificant group difference. The constrained means for cyberbullying perpetration and victimization are presented in Figs. While there were no ificant program effects for males, we found program effects for females. Cyberbullying perpetration across time by sex and cohort. Cyberbullying victimization across time by sex and cohort.

The constrained means Dating matters broward county the physical violence perpetration are shown in Fig. The differences between DM and SC students on physical violence perpetration scores averaged 1. One notable exception to the consistent pattern of program effects was that Cohort 4 males demonstrated program effects on physical violence perpetration at spring of 6th grade only; DM and SC male students in that cohort were not ificantly different on physical violence perpetration in 7th and 8th grade. No effects were found for physical violence victimization Fig.

Dating matters broward county

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