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Refworks. For reproduction for other purposes permission in writing of both author and publisher is required. BoxStation B. Kaye Lamb, w. To apply tor the scholarship, candidates must submit 1 a letter of application: 2 an essay of 1, words on a topic relating to the history of British Columbia: 3 a letter of recommendation from the professor for whom the essay was written.
The winning essay submitted by a third or fourth year student will be published in BC Historical News. Other submissions may be published at the editor's discretion. The award honours individual initiative in writing and presentation. Web site creators and authors may nominate their own sites. Judging will be based on subject development, writing skill, freshness of material, and appeal to a general readership interested in all aspects of BC history.
Historical Federation Conference which will be held in Victoria, May Mark the dates on your calendars. All members of the BCHF and their friends are welcome to attend. Her website is www. The first election in what is now British Columbia was held in the then colony of Vancouver Island early in July John Sebastian Helmcken, one of that little group of legislators who first brought representative government to the colony of fewer than settlers, described the scene: The "House of Assembly" Hall was a room therein [part of "Bachelors' Hall] British Columbia 38 twenty feet in length by about a dozen in breadth, lined with upright plank unpainted, unadorned, save perhaps with a few "cedar mats" to cover fissures In the center stood a large dilapidated rectangular stove, its sides made of sheet iron, beautifully and picturesquely bulging.
At its end was a wooden home manufactured table, upon which stood a hundred d ledger, an inkstand, pens and a small supply of "foolscap," but without a" mace," penknife or postage stamps Around the Speaker's table stood half a dozen very ordinary wooden chairs, for the use of the members, and at a respectful distance a couple of benches, without backs for the audience.
This furniture really belonged to Bachelors' Hall, and therefore the House of Assembly and country were not put to any unnecessary expense. At the end of the year s indicated that this august body had cost about twenty-five dollars, which occasioned some ironical remarks from the London Times. They had been grumbling and petitioning the British government since the Hudson's Bay Company brought out its "first shipload of immigrants" in Fur trade management style did not sit well with midth century settlers, especially the Scots.
As governor of the colony and chief factor in charge of the western district of the Hudson's Bay Company, he felt entirely capable of running the place without help or interference from elected settlers. He told the Colonial Secretary that he was "utterly averse to universal suffrage. Aware that all was not serene under the Company's rule, they felt there was something unseemly about a British colony run by, and primarily for the benefit of, commercial interests. Douglas was not pleased when he received a letter, dated 28 February,from Colonial Secretary Henry Labouchere, who began by praising British Columbia 38 Governor for his admirable management of Vancouver Island.
He continued at length about the principles of Colonial law, then dropped his bombshell: It appears to Her Majesty's Government that steps should be taken at once for the establishment of the only legislature authorized by the present constitution of the Island. I have, accordingly to instruct you to call together an Assembly in the terms of your Commission and Instructions.
I approach the subject with diffidence; feeling, however, all the encouragement which the kindly promised assistance and support of Her Majesty's Government is calculated to inspire. Nevertheless, in spite of being "utterly averse to universal suffrage, or making population the basis of representation," he promised to make "every exertion Victoria would have three members, Esquimalt two members; Sooke and Metchosin one member each.
According to the terms of his commission, the only eligible voters were British citizens who owned 20 or more acres of freehold land, apparently excluding householders or owners of town property. This narrowed the field considerably in a colony where nearly all British males were still employed by the Hudson's Bay Company, with land prices high and wages low. There were so few candidates that Victoria district, with five eligible males, was the only district contested. Even so, Bday party date 38 Kamloops successful candidate, Captain Langford of Colwood Farm, was later disqualified because of suspicions of fiddling with a proposed land purchase.
The landmark election was completed by July A few days later, Douglas reported to the colonial secretary that the election had passed "quietly and did not appear to excite much interest among the lower orders," and that he had convened the Assembly for 12 August. But like many British Columbia legislatures to come, the little group split into pro-and anti-establishment.
James Yates, the publican, and Thomas Skinner, manager of a large Company farm in Esquimalt, fell naturally into the role of unofficial opposition; and House speaker Dr. John Helmcken, the Governor's son-in-law, successfully walked a tightrope throughout the four-year life of the first elected legislature west of Ontario. Clarke, , vol. I, Hendrickson, ed. II, 5. Helmcken vividly describes some of the proceedings of the first Assembly in Reminiscences, The North Pacific and Inverness salmon canneries, two of the 19 such canneries operating at the mouth of the Skeena River were hit by mud and debris slides.
Though the reports on fatalities differ, as many as 50 people may have perished as a result of these slides. Prior to the invention of the canning process, the salmon had to be salt cured and smoked. But the tin can, which originally had to be made by hand, changed all that. In the late s and early s, approximately of these remote canneries dotted the Pacific coast from Vancouver to the Alaska Panhandle.
They generally operated only during the summer and early fall. Unlike today's fish packing plants that are located along deep water in or near major settlements, the old canneries were in fact self- contained cannery villages far away from whatever civilization there was at the time. In its heyday, a cannery like North Pacific would employ and house as many as people. The canneries had their own general store, school, post office and sometimes even small church. Most of them were partially built upon pilings in the tidal water.
The canneries' large net lofts were used for the Saturday night dances, which were open to everybody including people from other nearby canneries. When the North Pacific and Inverness canneries were built there were no road or rail connections; the Skeena River was their only lifeline. British Columbia 38 and everyone came and went by small boat, paddle wheeler or steam ship. Groceries arrived once a week on a scheduled steamer.
The cannery workers were segregated along distinct ethnic lines. Each ethnic group in turn became a small self- contained community. The Native Indian men and women from the nearby villages were housed in small huts at the other side of the cannery. The men were employed as fishermen, while the women worked in fish processing or making and mending nets.
White people served in management and other key positions such as net boss, store manager, timekeeper and office personnel. Others operated the power plant, cold storage, reduction plant where fishmeal and oil were producedand did blacksmithing and boat repairs. The Chinese can makers would arrive first, usually around early March to start making the cans for the coming season by hand.
At the North Pacific cannery can- making machinery was not installed until These Chinese workers stayed for the summer, living in their separate bunkhouse community. The Japanese men worked as fishermen and as shore workers, and their women were employed in the cannery.
During the early summer of the weather had been warm and dry for some time but a sudden change took place on July 4 around midnight when a The North Pacific Cannery in the s. During the three days of steady rain between JulyPort Simpson, the only nearby location that kept weather records, rainfall measured An even larger amount of rain may have fallen in the Inverness Channel area, southwest of Prince Rupert where, according to onesome 12 inches over mm of rain fell in 24 hours alone.
Not surprisingly, a weather event of such magnitude could cause Bday party date 38 Kamloops in the mountainous terrain above Inverness Channel, the northern outlet of the Skeena River. The steep mountain ridge above Inverness Channel has a whole string of deep gullies and other avalanche paths, and mud and debris slides are a common occurrence.
As most landslides occurred during late fall and winter rainstorms, they usually did not cause any fatalities and went unreported. Unfortunately, the freak July rain event was the exception, as it happened during a time when work in the salmon canneries was in full swing.
On July 6, at about 1 a. Within 15 yards A few hours later at a. Within moments the debris was upon the doomed settlement, carrying everything before it into the nearby slough. The occupants of one house got out of the building, but were caught by the debris slide rushing down. In all, nine houses, including the mess house and the cannery foreman's residence, were destroyed and their occupants lost.
The foreman's Swedish wife, who was in the mess room at the time, was carried along with the mass of debris. The destruction caused by the slide was immense, with mud and debris nearly filling the slough.
The slide just missed the cannery building by about 2 feet 0. Inside the building, the foreman and about 60 Natives were awaiting the arrival of the boats that were expected during the slack tide. The boats and their crews were fortunate enough to be out of reach of the slide. Had the slide struck the cannery, or occurred half an hour earlier, when all the people would have been in the mess house, the death toll here could have reached Debris slides also hit the North Pacific Cannery, just upstream along the 7-km strip in Inverness Passage known as cannery row.
Built in by John Alexander Carthew, this cannery was only two years old. The brand new cannery changed hands twice in as many years as Carthew sold it to Notes 1 Victoria Daily Colonist, July 14, John T. Wicks, Memories of the Skeena, Saanichton, B. C: Hancock House, Geological Survey Branch. Information circular The North Pacific Cannery pictured here in the s. On the morning of July 6 at about 2 a.
Native cannery workers, sleeping in a string of shacks near the cannery, fled in terror to the cannery building for refuge. Standing out in the river, they perceived it to be safer than the small cabins on shore. When the turmoil above ceased and no debris reached the bottom of the mountain, the workers returned to their shacks. As usual at 6 a.
Suddenly, around 9 a. In its place a conglomeration of mud, gravel, boulders and giant trees, twisted and broken, covered the area to a depth of 12 to 15 feet 4 to 5 m. Only two cabins, outside of the path of the slide, remained standing. The slide heard earlier that morning had filled the gulch overhead, damming the water until it acquired sufficient weight to sweep everything in front of it.Bday party date 38 Kamloops, British Columbia 38
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